INS Vikramaditya Aircraft Carrier,Indian Navy-The Floating City
The INS Vikramaditya is a Indian Navy Aircraft carrier based on the Kiev-Class aircraft carrier which entered into Indian Navy service in 2013.
The Aircraft carrier was originally built as Baku and commissioned in 1987 in Soviet and later on from 1991 to 1996 it served with Russian Navies and after that decommissioned in 1996 as the carrier was too expensive to operate on a post-cold War budget.Then the carrier was purchased by India on 20 January 2004 after years of negotiations at a final price of $2.35 billion.The ship successfully completed its sea trails in July 2013 and aviation trails in September 2013.
After commissioned on November 2013,It was formally inducted into the Indian Navy and dedicated it to the nation on 14 June 2014 by Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi.
INS Vikramaditya Key Features-Overview
The ship will be operated in a STOBAR configuration, with a 14.3 degree ski-jump on the bow and three arrestor wires on the stern of the angled deck.It is capable of operating both conventional fixed-wing aircrafts and helicopters . This will allow the operation of MiG-29K and Sea Harrier aircraft. The maximum take off length for the MiG-29K on the Vikramaditya will be between 160–180 metres.
The INS Vikramaditya designed to carry up to 30 Mikoyan MiG-29 fighters and up to eight Kamov Ka-28 ASW and Kamov Ka-31 AEW&C helicopters.
Eventually, it would carry HAL Tejas trainer aircraft, Dhruv light helicopters,Kinzhal air defense missiles and Kashtan air defense gun or missile systems.It would carry 4 Air Squadrons namely INAS 303 “Black Panthers”-Squadron of Mig-29k, INAS 321 “Angels”-Squadron of Chetak Helicopters,INAS 330 “Harpoons”-Squadron of Sea King and INAS 339 “Falcons”-Squadron of Kamov Ka-31 helicopters.
An added advantage of “Admiral Gorshkov’ platform is its superstructure profile that has the potential to accommodate powerful planar or phased array radar systems with the “billboard style” antennae, which was first observed on the United States Navy’s USS Long Beach, along with extensive command and control facilities to conduct an aerial campaign.
The ship is also projected to be equipped with a robust combination of air defence weaponry, such as a SAM and/or a CIWS.
Design and Modifications
INS Vikramaditya also known as Floating City,has modified from VTOL carrier to a STOBAR Carrier (STOBAR (Short Take-Off But Arrested Recovery) is a system used for the launch and recovery of aircraft from the deck of an aircraft carrier, combining elements of both short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) with catapult-assisted take-off but with arrested recovery (CATOBAR)).
The aircraft carrier has a length of 283.5 metres,Beam of 59.8 metres and Draught of 10.2 metres.It has loaded displacement of 45,400 tonnes.The carrier has capacity of carrying 110 officers with 1500 sailors. Of 2500 a total of 1750 compartments were completely re-fabricated.There is replacement of 2300 kms of old cable with new cables.
A total of 234 new hull sections were fabricated using 2500 tonnes of steel. The superstructure was modified to accommodate a host of sensors and equipment such as radars, Electronic Warfare suite and Action Information Organisation system and other systems to suit the requirements of ship borne fighters and rotors. A very unique structural modification that was carried out on board the ship was the installation of the aft mast for accommodating various communication antennae.
Propulsion System and Performance
The INS Vikramaditya is powered by 8-Turbo-Pressurised Boilers,4 shafts,4 geared steam turbines which are capable of generating power of 134,226 kw. Additionally 6 turbo alternators and 6 diesel alternators are also installed that generates 18Mwe of power.They are installed to power various equipment of the ship.
Previously old Vikramaditya was powered by by boilers fuelled by heavy oil, FFO. The re-equipping included replacement of these old boilers with state of the art boilers utilizing LSHSD and providing a steam capacity of 100 Tonnes per Hour each.
The aircraft carrier has maximum speed of 32 knots (59 km/h).IT has operational range of 7000 nautical miles (13000 km) at its maximum speed and 13500 nautical miles (25,000 km) at 18 knots (33km/h).The carrier has capacity to carry large goods and other things to feed personnel on board like lakh of eggs,20,000 litres of milk and 16 tonnes or rice per month and can sustain in sea for a period of 45 days.
Armaments and Other facilities
The INS Vikramaditya is armed with 4X Ak-630 fully automatic naval close-in weapon system (CIWS) based on a six-barreled 30 mm rotary cannon and capable of fire 4000-10,000 rounds/min at the range of more than 4000m. It can defend anti-ship missiles and other precision guided weapons.
It is also armed with Barak 1 Surface-to-Air missile and Barak 8 an India-Israeli surface-to-air missile (SAM), designed to defend against any type of airborne threat including aircraft, helicopters, anti-ship missiles, and UAVs as well as cruise missiles and combat jets.
The Aircraft cariier has 22 Decks with 2 acre or 8093 Sq metres of Flight Deck.As for STOBAR operations, three 30 m arrestor wires and three restraining gears on the stern of the angled deck were fitted. Sponsons were installed to increase the breadth at the flight deck, for fitment of the ski-jump, for strengthening of arresting gear and runway area, and for elongation of the aft end to increase the length of the landing strip aft of the arresting gear.
Combat System and other Avionics/Sensors
The ship is equipped with state of the art launch and recovery systems along with aids to enable smooth and efficient operation of ship borne aircraft. Major systems include the LUNA Landing system for MiGs, DAPS Landing system for Sea Harriers and Flight deck lighting systems.
The heart of the operational network that infuses life into the combat systems on board the carrier is the Computer aided Action Information Organisation (CAIO) system, LESORUB-E. LESORUB has the capability to gather data from ship’s sensors and data links and to process, collate and assemble comprehensive tactical pictures. This state of the art system has been specifically designed keeping in mind the essential requirement on the carrier for fighter control and direction.
An extensive revamp of sensors including fitment of Long range Air Surveillance Radars, Advanced Electronic Warfare Suite makes the ship capable of maintaining a surveillance bubble of over 500 kms around the ship.Resistor-E radar complex a most prominent equipment is fitted on the superstructure.It is the automated system designed for providing air traffic control, approach/landing and short range navigation for ship borne aircraft.
This complex along with its various sub-systems provides navigation and flight data to ship borne aircraft operating at extended ranges from the mother ship. The precision approach guidance system aids the fighters on approach to be directed down to a distance of 30 meters short of flight deck. Vikramaditya also boasts of a very modern communication complex, CCS MK II, to meet its external communication requirement. Installation of Link II tactical data system allows it to be fully integrated with the Indian Navy’s network centric operations.
|DESIGN||hull design is basedon theAdmiral Gorshkov and features STOBAR|
|ENGINE AND PROPULSION||8 turbopressurized boilers, 4 shafts, 4 geared steam turbines, generating 180,000 horsepower (134,226 kW)|
|Class-Type||Modified Kiev-class aircraft carrier|
|COMBAT SYSTEM||LESORUB-E,CCS MK II communication system,LINK II tactical data system|
|LENGTH||283.5 metres(930 ft)|
|SPEED||32 kn (59 km/hr)|
|RANGE||13,500 nautical miles (25,000 km)|
|CAPACITY||MAXIMUM 36 aircrafts|
|Aircrafts Carried||30 × Mikoyan MiG-29K multi-role fighters,6 × Kamov Ka-31 AEW&C and Kamov Ka-28 ASW helicopters|
|ARMAMENT||AK-630 CIWSBarak 8 (LRSAM)|